Natural Features


Belgrade's surroundings consist of two different natural systems: On the north, the Pannonian depression, covered with wheat and corn, and Šumadija, with orchards and vineyards, south of the rivers Sava and Danube. The highest relief forms in Šumadija hillside are Kosmaj (628 m) and Avala (511 m). Starting from south, the terrain gradually descends to the north, in shapes of wide plateaus, sectioned by stream and river valleys. High plasticity of Belgrade relief, south of the rivers Sava and Danube, makes the city spread over many hills (Banovo, Lekino, Topčidersko, Kanarevo, Julino, Petlovo, Zvezdara, Vračar, Dedinje). North from the rivers Sava and Danube there are alluvial plains and loessial plateaus, which are divided by a steep section, up to 30 m high. New Belgrade is situated on the left bank of Sava, beneath a loessial plateau (Bežanijska kosa), and Zemun is situated on the right bank of Danube, beneath a loessial plateau.

The highest point of inner-city area of Belgrade, is at Torlak (Voždovac), being the Holy Trinity Church at 303.1 m, while the lowest point is on Ada Huja (river island) at 70.15 m. The highest point of the larger-city area is on the Kosmaj mountain (Mladenovac) at 628 m. The absolute altitude of the Meteorological Observatory - 132 m - is considered the average altitude of Belgrade.

The Danube flows through 60 km of Belgrade area, from Stari Banovci to Grocka, while the Sava covers 30 km from Obrenovac to its intake. The length of river banks of Belgrade is 200 km. There are 16 river islands in that area, and the best known of them are Ada Ciganlija, Veliko ratno ostrvo and Gročanska ada.

There are many woods in the city area, and the best preserved are the woods of Kosmaj, Avala, Trešnja, Lipovica, Topčider, Obrenovački zabran and Bojčin.